Performing traditional sets to failure is fatiguing, but redistributing total rest time to create short frequent sets lessens the fatigue. Since performing traditional sets to failure is not always warranted, we compared the effects of not-to-failure traditional sets and rest redistribution during free-weight back squats in twenty-six strength-trained men (28 ± 5.44 y; 84.6 ± 10.5 kg, 1RM-to-body-mass ratio of 1.82 ± 0.33).
They performed three sets of ten repetitions with 4 min inter-set rest (TS) and five sets of six repetitions with 2 min inter-set rest (RR6) at 70% of one repetition maximum. Mean velocity (p > 0.05; d = 0.10 (-0.35, 0.56)) and mean power (p > 0.05; d = 0.19 (-0.27, 0.64)) were not different between protocols, but the rating of perceived exertion (RPE) was less during RR6 (p < 0.05; d = 0.93 (0.44, 1.40)).
Also, mean velocity and power output decreased (RR6: 14.10% and 10.95%; TS: 17.10% and 15.85%, respectively) from the first repetition to the last, but the percentage decrease was similar (velocity: p > 0.05; d = 0.16 (0.30, 0.62); power: p > 0.05; d = 0.22 (-0.24, 0.68)). These data suggest that traditional sets and rest redistribution maintain velocity and power output to a similar degree when traditional sets are not performed to failure. However, rest redistribution might be advantageous as RR6 displayed a lower RPE.
Patterns in metabolite profile are associated with risk of more aggressive prostate cancer: A prospective study of 3,057 matched case-control sets from EPIC.
Metabolomics may reveal novel insights into the etiology of prostate cancer, for which few risk factors are established. We investigated the association between patterns in baseline plasma metabolite profile and subsequent prostate cancer risk, using data from 3,057 matched case-control sets from the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC).
We measured 119 metabolite concentrations in plasma samples, collected on average 9.4 years before diagnosis, by mass spectrometry (AbsoluteIDQ p180 Kit, Biocrates Life Sciences AG). Metabolite patterns were identified using treelet transform, a statistical method for identification of groups of correlated metabolites. Associations of metabolite patterns with prostate cancer risk (OR1SD ) were estimated by conditional logistic regression. Supplementary analyses were conducted for metabolite patterns derived using principal component analysis and for individual metabolites. Men with metabolite profiles characterized by higher concentrations of either phosphatidylcholines or hydroxysphingomyelins (OR1SD = 0.77, 95% confidence interval 0.66-0.89), acylcarnitines C18:1 and C18:2, glutamate, ornithine and taurine (OR1SD = 0.72, 0.57-0.90), or lysophosphatidylcholines (OR1SD = 0.81, 0.69-0.95) had lower risk of advanced stage prostate cancer at diagnosis, with no evidence of heterogeneity by follow-up time.
Similar associations were observed for the two former patterns with aggressive disease risk (the more aggressive subset of advanced stage), while the latter pattern was inversely related to risk of prostate cancer death (OR1SD = 0.77, 0.61-0.96). No associations were observed for prostate cancer overall or less aggressive tumor subtypes. In conclusion, metabolite patterns may be related to lower risk of more aggressive prostate tumors and prostate cancer death, and might be relevant to etiology of advanced stage prostate cancer.
The one-is-more illusion: Sets of discrete objects appear less extended than equivalent continuous entities in both space and time.
We distinguish between discrete objects and continuous entities in categorization and language, but might we actually see such stimuli differently? Here we report the one-is-more illusion, wherein ‘objecthood’ changes what we perceive in an unexpected way.
Across many variations and tasks, observers perceived a single continuous object (e.g. a rectangle) as longer than an equated set of multiple discrete objects (e.g. two shorter rectangles separated by a gap). This illusion is phenomenologically compelling, exceptionally reliable, and it extends beyond space, to time: a single continuous tone is perceived to last longer than an equated set of multiple discrete tones.
Previous work has emphasized the importance of objecthood for processes such as attention and visual working memory, but these results typically require careful analyses of subtle effects. In contrast, we provide striking demonstrations of how perceived objecthood changes the perception of other properties in a way that you can readily see (and hear!) with your own eyes (and ears!).